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Foods in solid  Pharmaceuticals


Beverages & foods in liquid form

Beer

This figure shows the bitterness and sourness of three types of beer commercially available in Japan, traditional, low-malt and "Dai-san no beer", which contains malt alternatives, illustrating the difference between the three types of beer.
Conditions
・Preparation: none required
・Sensors used: bitterness sensor C00 and sourness sensor CA0
・Taste information used: Acidic bitterness (from the relative value of C00) and Sourness (from the relative value of CA0)

Instant soup

This figure shows measurement results for instant soup samples commercially available from Companies A to D in Japan, indicating that samples can be easily distinguished from one another.
Conditions
・Preparation: centrifuge at 3000 rpm for 10 min
・Sensors used: umami sensor AAE and saltiness sensor CT0
・Taste information used: Umami (from the relative value of AAE) and Saltiness (from the relative value of CT0)

* Courtesy of Taste & Aroma Strategic Research Institute, Inc. (Japan)

Evaluation of the degradation of green tea

This figure shows the change in the taste of commercial PET-bottle green tea due to heat-induced aging, showing that the aftertaste from acidic bitterness increases with aging, while the aftertaste from astringency decreases. This figure clearly reflects the deterioration of green tea.
Conditions
・Preparation: none required
・Temperature: 60 °C
・Period: up to 3 weeks
・Sensors used: bitterness sensor C00 and astringent sensor AE1
・Taste information used: Aftertaste from acidic bitterness (from the CPA value of C00) and Aftertaste from astringency (from the CPA value of AE1)
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Solid foods

Instant curry

Below is a bubble graph for 7 types of instant curry commercially available in Japan, where the bubble size represents the market share. Acidic bitterness can also be considered as "richness" (or mouthfulness) at relatively low concentrations, and therefore provides effective information for the taste evaluation of a variety of foods. From the information of saltiness and acidic bitterness, it is possible to predict the potential market share.
Conditions
・Preparation: Each amples is mixed with 4 times the amount of pure water and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min.
・Sensors used: saltiness sensor CT0 and bitterness sensor C00
・Taste information used: Saltiness (from the relative value of CT0) and Acidic bitterness (from the relative value of C00)

* Courtesy of Taste & Aroma Strategic Research Institute, Inc. (Japan)

Bread

Below is a two-dimensional scatter plot for 8 types of bread commercially available in Japan, showing the difference between them. Foodstuffs with a subtle taste such as bread can also be evaluated.
Conditions
・Preparation: Each sample is mixed with 4 times the amount of pure water and then centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min.
・Sensors used: umami sensor AAE and saltiness sensor CT0
・Taste information used: Umami (from the relative value of AAE) and Saltiness (from the relative value of CT0)

* Courtesy of Taste & Aroma Strategic Research Institute, Inc. (Japan)

Miso

This scatter plot shows measurement results for 3 types of miso, a traditional Japanese seasoning mainly made of soybeans, that are commercially available in Japan. Acidic bitterness can also be seen as "richness" (or mouthfulness) at relatively low concentrations, and therefore provides effective information for the taste evaluation of a variety of foods. This result demonstrates that red miso samples have a richer taste while white miso samples have a more subtle taste.
Conditions
・Preparation: Each sample is mixed with 4 times the amount of pure water and then filtered through a gauze.
・Sensors used: bitterness sensor C00 and umami sensor AAE
・Taste information used: Acidic bitterness (from the relative value of C00) and Richness (from the CPA value of AAE)

* Courtesy of Taste & Aroma Strategic Research Institute, Inc. (Japan)
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Pharmaceuticals

Evaluation of drug bitterness

This figure shows the results of a bitterness evaluation of drugs (mainly hydrochloride salts). The X-axis represents the bitterness sensory score obtained from a human sensory test, while the y-axis shows bitterness score predicted by taste sensors using multiple regression analysis. The predicted score has a high correlation (0.824) to the sensory score, thus demonstrating that the taste sensors can evaluate the bitterness of drugs.
Conditions
・Preparation solvent: 30 mM KCl
・Drug concentration: 0.3 mM for all samples
・Sensors used: bitterness sensors CN0 and AN0
・Analysis method: multiple regression analysis
→ Website

* Courtesy of Mukogawa Women's University, Department of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Japan (Laboratory of Prof. Uchida)

Evaluation of continuity of drug bitterness (attenuation rate)

This figure shows the results of an evaluation of the continuity of bitterness drugs (mainly hydrochloride salts), also called the "attenuation rate." It can be calculated from the variation of CPA values obtained by multiple measurements. Bitter substances adsorbed on a membrane are gradually removed by rinsing the membrane with a reference solution, meaning that the attenuation rate can provide an indication of bitterness continuity.
Conditions
・Preparation solvent: 30 mM KCl
・Drug concentration: 0.3 mM for all samples
・Sensor used: bitterness sensor CN0
・Measurement method: 5 consecutive measurements of the CPA of the drugs solution
→ Website

* Courtesy of Mukogawa Women's University, Department of Clinical Pharmaceutics, Japan (Laboratory of Prof. Uchida)

Evaluation of effect of cyclodextrin on suppressing bitteness

This figure shows the effect of 4 types of cyclodextrin on suppressing the bitterness of cetirizine hydrochloride. The X-axis represents the bitterness sensory score obtained from human sensory tests, while the y-axis shows the bitterness score predicted by taste sensors using single regression analysis. The results suggest that the taste sensor can detect the effect of cyclodextrins on suppressing bitterness.
Conditions
・Preparation solvent: 10 mM KCl
・Concentration of cetirizine hydrochloride: 5 mM
・Concentration of cyclodextrin added: 20 mM for all samples
・Sensor used: bitterness sensor AN0
・Analysis method: single regression analysis
→ Website

* HP-beta-cyclodextrn; 2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin
* Courtesy of Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences Sojo University, Japan, (Laboratory of Prof. Uekama)

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